Nano particulate Drug Delivery Systems
Nanoparticles (NPs) occur naturally and have been in existence for thousands of years as products of combustion and cooking of food. Nanomaterials differ significantly from other materials due to the following two major principal factors: the increased surface area and quantum effects. These factors can enhance properties such as reactivity, strength, electrical characteristics, and in vivo behavior. As the particle size decreases, a greater proportion of atoms are found at the surface compared to inside. An NP has a much greater surface area per unit mass compared with larger particles, leading to greater reactivity. In tandem with surface area effects, quantum effects can begin to dominate the properties of matter as size is reduced to the nanoscale. Key players in the market include Amgen, Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Eli Lilly & Co., Ipsen S.A., Merck & Co., Novartis AG, Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Holdings AG, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited. Leading API manufacturers include Bachem Holding AG, PolyPeptide Group, and Peptisyntha Inc. at the pharmaceutical companies’ conference.