Novel Drug Delivery: 2D and 3D Printing applications
Activities have been increased regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in formulation of dosage forms. These technologies offer flexibility in manufacturing, pave the way for personalized dosing and dosage forms.
Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is quick growing area of research. 3DP can design solid dosage forms with variable densities and diffusivities, complex internal geometries, multiple drugs and excipients.
3DP uses computer aided technology and programme to transform 3D computer aided designs (CAD) into life-changing products. These develop more effective and patient-friendly pharmaceutical products as well as bio-inspired medical devices. Levetiracetam (SPRITAM®) tablet a pharmaceutical product is developed by using 3DP technology.
3DP offers advantages like (a) high production rates due to its fast operating systems, (b) ability to achieve high drug-loading with desired accuracy mainly for potent drugs that are applied in small amount , (c) reduction of material wastage that can save in production cost and (d) amenability to pharmaceutical active ingredients including poorly water-soluble drugs, proteins as well as drug with narrow therapeutic windows.
3D structures can be printed on a variety of surfaces with characteristic permeability, porosity, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and surface energy. Scientists in collaboration with CAD designers have produced new medical devices ranging from pharmaceutical tablets to surgical transplants of the human face and skull, spinal implants, prosthetics, human organs and other biomaterials.