Size reduction is a fundamental unit operation having important applications in pharmacy. It helps in improving solubility and bioavailability, reducing toxicity, enhancing release and providing better formulation opportunities for drugs. In most of the cases, size reduction is limited to micron size range, for example, various pharmaceutical dosage forms like powder, emulsion, suspension etc. Drugs in the nanometer size range enhance performance in a variety of dosage forms. Major advantages of nanosizing include (i) increased surface area, (ii) enhanced solubility, (iii) increased rate of dissolution, (iv) increased oral bioavailability, (v) more rapid onset of therapeutic action, (vi) less amount of dose required, (vii) decreased fed/fasted variability, and (viii) decreased patient-to-patient variability.
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has provided more fine-tuned diagnosis and focused treatment of disease at a molecular level. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is most innovative and highly specialized field, which will revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry in near future. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology presents revolutionary opportunities to fight against many diseases. It helps in detecting the antigen associated with diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as detecting the microorganisms and viruses associated with infections. It is expected that in next 10 years market will be flooded with nanotechnology devised medicine.