Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies

Pharmacokinetics describes how the medicament gets influenced after administration, followed by absorption, distribution, metabolism mechanisms and excretion of the drug substance. Pharmacokinetic knowledge assist prescribers to adjust dosage more accurately and precisely. Clinical kinetics is defined as the applications of pharmacokinetic principles in the safe and adequate management of individual patient. Toxic pharmacokinetics is defined as the applications of pharmacokinetic principles to the design, behaviour and interpretation of drug safety evaluation studies.

Pharmacodynamics describes biochemical, physiological, and molecular effects of drugs on the body and involves receptor binding (including receptor sensitivity), post receptor effects, and chemical reactions. The pharmacologic response depends on the drug binding to its target. Pharmacodynamics is defined as the relationship between drug concentration at the site of action and the resulting effect. The effect of a drug present at the site of action is measured by drug-receptor binding.