Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies

Pharmacokinetics describes how the medicament gets influenced after administration, followed by absorption, distribution, metabolism mechanisms and excretion of the drug substance. Pharmacokinetic knowledge assists prescribers to adjust dosage accurately and precisely. Clinical kinetics is defined as the applications of pharmacokinetic principles in the safe and adequate management of individual patient. Toxic pharmacokinetics is defined as the applications of pharmacokinetic principles to the designation, behaviour and interpretation of drug safety evaluation studies.

Pharmacodynamics describes biochemical, physiological, and molecular effects of drugs on the body and involves receptor binding (including receptor sensitivity), post receptor effects, and chemical reactions. The pharmacological response depends on the drug binding to its target. The effect of drug presence at the site of action is measured by drug-receptor binding.