Protein, Peptide and Gene Drug Delivery
Peptides and proteins have more potential as drug delivery systems. Compared with the small size drugs, peptides and proteins can be highly selective as they have multiple contact points with their target. Increased selectivity results in decreased side effects and toxicity. Peptides can be designed to target a broad range of molecules and provide opportunities in oncology, infectious disease and endocrinology fields. The market for peptide and protein drugs is estimated to be greater than US$40 billion/year, or 10% of the pharmaceutical market .At present there are over 100 approved peptide-based drugs in the market. The pharmaceutical scientists have approaches to develop the protein and peptide delivery formulations by noninvasive routes.
Gene therapy is defined as incorporation of genetic material i.e, DNA or RNA, in the cellular gene regulation system, either to correct the expression of a malfunctioning gene or to modulate the cellular functions. Nanotechnology advances gave rise to the development of nanoparticle-DNA delivery systems. Gene delivery is an important part of genome evolution. Gene delivery utilizes non-immunogenic vectors capable of cell specificity that can deliver an adequate amount of transgene expression to cause the desired effect. Gene therapy advanceshave enabled a variety of new methods and gene targets to be identified for possible applications. Gene delivery has been utilized to generate a hybrid biosynthetic vector to deliver a possible vaccine.